● When it decides the emergency phase is over.
● When it can successfully hand over responsibilities to the host government or another organization.
This can be a difficult decision; the end of the emergency is not always clear, as is/was the case
with the AIDS pandemic, other epidemics, and certain ongoing conflicts.
● When it is forced to for security reasons, as was the case in Afghanistan in 2004, where MSF staff
members were killed and no credible investigation was made into the incident by the authorities, or
in Somalia in 2013, when the circumstances on the ground made it too difficult to operate with any
sense of security.
● When it is forced to by government decisions, as happened in the past decade in Darfur and in