*** Local Caption *** Since the on-start of the conflict in South Sudan, mid-December 2013, according to the UNCHR, more than 1,400,000 persons have been internally displaced and more than 450,000 would have sought refuge in the neighboring countries, amongst which 190,000 in Gambella region, western Ethiopia. The rainy season has temporarily slowed the stream of people arriving into the camps. The rate of new arrivals has slowed down in the last several months, from 1000 new arrivals per day in February to approximately 100 per week today. However UNHCR forecast expected an additional of 110,000 new arrivals in 2015 with restarting of the fighting in South Sudan during the dry season.<br/>
The current refugee population in Gambella region remains in a critical situation and additional population influxes could further destabilize an already difficult situation. In order to reduce child mortality, MSF is carrying out vaccination campaign targeting 50,000 children for PCV / vaccine and 26,000 children for DPT- Hib-HepB vaccine.<br/>
This vaccination campaign is a challenge due to logistical constraints (cold chain, waste management, transport, access, etc.) and the 2 doses minimum required for effective protection.<br/>
Extended preventive package in emergency situations is a major issue. New preventive strategy, including vaccination, could improve more rapidly the mortality and burden of diseases in acute phase of emergencies. This intervention is an example showing that is possible to extend the vaccination package in emergency situation and should be a first step to review current policy.