A nurse is taking care of Tsandia and Kristian at the HIV department of Arua Regional hospital-Uganda
Uganda 2015 © Isabel Corthier/MSF
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Since the beginning of the epidemic, HIV/AIDS has killed some 39 million people. If left untreated, HIV gradually weakens the body’s immune system, usually over a period of up to 10 years after infection.

A person living with HIV is considered to have developed AIDS when their immune system is so weak it can no longer fight off certain opportunistic infections and diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and some cancers. One of the most common opportunistic infections among people living with HIV/AIDS is tuberculosis (TB).

According to the World Health Organization, there are 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, the majority of them in sub-Saharan Africa.

One tenth of HIV/AIDS sufferers are children (3.2 million) under the age of 15.

Without treatment, half of all infants with HIV will die before their second birthday.

What causes HIV/AIDS?

HIV is most commonly spread by sexual activities and the exchange of body fluids.

It can also be transmitted through childbirth, breastfeeding, and sharing needles.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

While some people may develop symptoms similar to flu within the first two to six weeks of catching the virus, others may not show symptoms for many years while the virus slowly replicates.

Once the initial flu-like symptoms disappear, HIV will not show any further symptoms for many years.

Diagnosing HIV/AIDS

Despite the availability of affordable rapid tests for HIV, knowledge of HIV status remains low in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest.

An estimated 60 percent of people living with HIV are unaware of their status and in some settings this figure is far lower; a study in Kenya in 2009, for example, found that only 16 percent of HIV-infected adults knew that they were infected.

Treating HIV/AIDS

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, although treatments are much more successful than they used to be. A combination of drugs, known as antiretrovirals (ARVs), help combat the virus and enable people to live longer, healthier lives without their immune system rapidly declining.

Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) HIV/AIDS programs offer HIV testing with pre- and post-test counseling, treatment, and prevention of opportunistic infections, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and provision of ARVs for people in the late stages of the disease.

Our programs also generally include support to prevention, education, and awareness activities to help people understand how to prevent the spread of the virus.

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were living with HIV in 2019.
As many as 2.2M
children under 15
received HIV drug treatment in MSF programs in 2019