Research and advocacy are also crucial to our strategy. Alongside operational research to improve how we deliver care, we have several clinical studies in progress to develop the best combinations of new and old drugs for drug-resistant TB, aimed at finding shorter, all-oral regimens. We also conduct policy research in high-burden countries to identify barriers that hinder the use of new tools and approaches recommended by the World Health Organization. This research helps drive our advocacy on reducing the costs of new tools and scaling up broad global access to improved treatment strategies, diagnostics, and models of care.
Decentralizing and innovating care
For most TB patients treatment is long and difficult, often involving harsh drugs, and debilitating side effects—especially for those with MDR-TB, who may also face long periods of hospitalization. These factors make it difficult for many people with TB to seek or stick with, treatment. In response, and working within each country’s national guidelines, MSF has introduced strategies to simplify treatment, make it more tolerable, and bring it closer to patients.
A key aspect of expanding access to TB care and helping patients complete their treatment is decentralization—treating patients in community-based clinics and no longer requiring hospitalization for those with MDR-TB, a shift ushered in by changes to World Health Organization recommendations in 2014. Since then, many countries have made this change, although some still lag behind. To help implement this shift, MSF supports many local health clinics in diagnosing, treating, and monitoring TB patients.
An important part of decentralizing care is task-shifting. For settings with too few physicians, this means training clinic nurses to give patients TB medications and monitoring their response over time. It also means training ‘expert patients’ to support, educate and counsel their fellow patients. Task-shifting allows us to care for many more people and to foster stronger links with local clinics, which makes it easier for people to continue their treatment.
One of MSF’s most successful community-based TB projects is in Eswatini (formerly called Swaziland), a tiny country in southern Africa but with some of the world’s highest rates of new TB infections and HIV prevalence. In 2008 MSF began treating TB (and HIV) patients in communities of Shiselweni, a remote, rural region. Five years later an evaluation found that this program had greatly increased the number of TB patients being diagnosed, successfully completing treatment, and reporting satisfaction with their care. Decentralization and innovation have also been critical to providing care for TB patients in Papua New Guinea, where mountainous terrain, dense forests, lack of roads, and remote villages prevent many people from reaching treatment services. In response MSF teams have expanded outreach efforts, often traveling for hours by boat and road to visit health posts in small villages, or organizing transportation to help patients reach care.
Another strategy MSF uses to decentralize care is to offer home-based options for patients receiving treatment for MDR-TB. These build on Directly-Observed Therapy (DOT), where patients visit the clinic daily so a healthcare professional can watch them take their daily dose of medication—a widely-used approach to help patients with drug-sensitive TB adhere to complex regimens, and to help caretakers monitor their response. As an alternative to DOT, MSF now offers video-observed treatment to some MDR-TB patients who have difficulty reaching our clinics.
Caring for children living with TB
As challenging as it is to manage TB in adults, it is even harder in children, whose less robust immune systems make them especially vulnerable to developing TB. Diagnosis can be complicated since children often cannot cough up phlegm, which is used for most diagnostic tests. And many drugs that treat TB—especially MDR-TB—are not produced in pediatric doses, leaving children to take bitter-tasting pills cut into small pieces and crushed. Prolonged hospital stays can isolate children from their families, peers, and schooling. What’s more, children are often excluded from clinical trials that test shorter regimens and new medications, so the benefits of improved, more tolerable treatments take longer to reach them.
For these reasons, our TB programs work to improve TB care for children. One way is through partnerships with Ministries of Health, like that which established our pediatric TB program in Tajikistan. This program, which focuses on drug-resistant TB, uses specialized diagnostic methods such as using a nebulizer machine to help children produce sputum, and introduced treatments with new DR-TB medicines like bedaquiline and delamanid, and without injectable drugs. For children who cannot swallow tablets, the MSF pharmacist prepares medications in a syrup suspension, improving palatability of these medications and allowing for more exact dosages. The program employs teachers to provide basic schooling, runs a therapeutic playgroup, and holds group counseling sessions for hospitalized children to help them cope with the challenges of living with TB.
Treating TB and HIV under one roof
TB is the leading cause of death among people infected with HIV, whose weakened immune systems increasing their risk of TB and worsen its course. Ensuring that people with HIV are taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as TB preventive therapy increases their protection against TB. For people with both HIV and TB, integrating treatment for both infections at a single clinic—a relatively recent development in many settings—makes it far easier and more likely they will receive the care they need. At MSF our integrated, decentralized model of care typically brings together diagnosis, treatment, and patient support and counseling for patients with both HIV and TB. For example, in the Manzini region of Eswatini we supported the Ministry of Health to implement HIV/TB integrated care and adherence counseling sessions close to patient’s homes, leading to significant improvements in HIV and TB care services.
Developing better TB drugs through clinical trials
Only three new drugs have been developed in the past 50 years: bedaquiline, delamanid, and most recently pretomanid. While the first two are proving to be more effective than older drugs, including against highly drug-resistant TB, the research that led to their approval did not test the most effective combinations with existing drugs, ways to reduce or eliminate the harsher drugs, or to shorten treatment. (Pretomanid was developed as part of a regimen to treat XDR-TB.)
To this end, MSF is participating in two major clinical studies to find shorter, more effective, and less toxic treatments for MDR- and XDR-TB.
TB-PRACTECAL is aimed at developing treatments that can cure all forms of XDR-TB within six months, rather than the current nine- to twenty-month regimen. MSF ended enrollment in the study early (in March 2021) after the study’s independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board found that the trial’s new drug regimen was far superior to the current standard of care. These data will be shared with the World Health Organization and, once full results are available, submitted to a peer-reviewed medical journal. This finding has enormous potential to improve clinical care and patient quality of life, and, ultimately to save the lives of many more people living with XDR-TB.
EndTB is a partnership between MSF, Partners In Health, Interactive Research and Development and their partners. Together these groups conduct clinical studies that test the safety and effectiveness of new, short, all-oral regimens for MDR-TB compared to regimens with injectable drugs. endTB is using combinations of bedaquiline and delamanid with older drugs. These studies are still ongoing, but initial findings already show that the new regimens are more effective and less toxic than those with injections. This evidence underscores how urgent it is to make bedaquiline and delamanid accessible to all patients who need these drugs.
A fundamental step to effectively combat the TB epidemic is that affected countries adopt the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended best practices for TB diagnosis and care. Our Step Up for TB 2020 study—a collaboration between the MSF Access Campaign and the Stop TB Partnership—shows that too few high-burden countries have updated their national policies to reflect new WHO guidelines, leaving thousands of people more vulnerable to this curable disease. It also leaves a deadly diagnostic gap: an estimated 3 million people with TB go undiagnosed every year (WHO Global TB Report 2018 factsheet). 'Step Up for TB’ is part of a series of reports since 2014 that have helped countries identify barriers to adopting the newest WHO guidelines and measure progress over time, and have helped inform efforts of TB advocates.
Through the Access Campaign we also work to expand access to better TB drugs and less harsh, more tolerable drug regimens, by advocating for a wide range of reforms and for drug companies to lower the price of crucial new medications like bedaquiline